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Kotlin Add Servicestack Reference

Kotlin - a better language for Android and the JVM

Whilst Java is the flagship language for the JVM, it’s slow evolution, lack of modern features and distasteful language additions have grown it into an cumbersome language to develop with, as illustrated in the C# 101 LINQ Examples in Java where it’s by far the worst of all modern languages compared, making it a poor choice for a functional-style of programming that’s especially painful for Android development which is stuck on Java 7.

By contrast Kotlin ended up being one of the best modern languages for functional programming that’s vastly more expressive, readable, maintainable and safer than Java. As Kotlin is being developed by JetBrains it also has great tooling support in Android Studio, IntelliJ and Eclipse and seamlessly integrates with existing Java code where projects can mix-and-match Java and Kotlin code together within the same application - making Kotlin a very attractive and easy choice for Android Development.

As we expect more Android and Java projects to be written in Kotlin in future we’ve added first-class Add ServiceStack Reference support for Kotlin with IDE integration in Android Studio and IntelliJ IDEA where App Devlopers can create and update an end-to-end typed API with just a Menu Item click - enabling a highly-productive workflow for consuming ServiceStack Services.

Kotlin Android Resources

To help getting started with Kotlin, we’ll maintain links to useful resources helping to develop Android Apps with Kotlin below:

Installing Kotlin

Kotlin support is enabled in Android Studio by installing the JetBrain’s Kotlin plugin in project settings:

Then find and select the Kotlin plugin from the list and click Install Plugin button:

Subsequent Restarts of Android Studio will now load with the Kotlin plugin enabled.

Configure Project to use Kotlin

After Kotlin is enabled in Android Studio you can configure which projects you want to have Kotlin support by going to either Tools -> Kotlin -> Configure Kotlin in Project on the File Menu:

Or alternatively you can launch it using Android Studio’s Quick Find Action with Ctrl + Shift + A and typing in Configure K to filter it from the list.

Configuring a project to support Kotlin just modifies that projects build.gradle, applying the necessary Android Kotlin plugin and build scripts needed to compile Kotlin files with your project. Once Kotlin is configured with your project you’ll get first-class IDE support for Kotlin .kt source files including intell-sense, integrated compiler analysis and feedback, refactoring and debugging support, etc.

One convenient feature that’s invaluable for porting Java code and learning Kotlin is the Converting Java to Kotlin Feature which can be triggered by selecting a .java class and clicking Ctrl + Alt + Shift + K keyboard short-cut (or using Find Action).

ServiceStack IDEA Android Studio Plugin

With Kotlin enabled on your project you can install ServiceStack IDEA plugin to provide Add ServiceStack Reference functionality directly from within Android Studio.

Install ServiceStack IDEA from the Plugin repository

The ServiceStack IDEA is now available to install directly from within IntelliJ or Android Studio IDE Plugins Repository, to Install Go to:

  1. File -> Settings... Main Menu Item
  2. Select Plugins on left menu then click Browse repositories… at bottom

Search for ServiceStack and click Install plugin

Restart to load the installed ServiceStack IDEA plugin

Download and Install ServiceStack IDEA Manually

See docs on Java Add ServiceStack Reference for instructions on other ways to install the ServiceStack IDEA plugin in Android Studio or IntelliJ.

Manually adding client dependency to your Project

When using Add ServiceStack Reference feature the ServiceStack IDEA Plugin automatically adds a reference to the net.servicestack:android dependency in your projects build.gradle, this can also manually add the reference by adding the dependency below:

dependencies {
    compile fileTree(dir: 'libs', include: ['*.jar'])
    compile 'net.servicestack:android:1.0.31'
}

This also lets you to change which ServiceStack Client library version you want to use, the example above uses 1.0.31. The net.servicestack:android dependency contains the AndroidServiceClient and JavaServiceClient that your projects use to call remote ServiceStack Services using the typed Kotlin DTO’s added to your project by the Add ServiceStack Reference feature.

Add ServiceStack Reference

If you’ve previously used Add ServiceStack Reference in any of the supported IDE’s before, you’ll be instantly familiar with Add ServiceStack Reference in Android Studio. The only additional field is Package, required in order to comply with Kotlin’s class definition rules.

To add a ServiceStack Reference, right-click (or press Ctrl+Alt+Shift+R) on the Package folder in your Java sources where you want to add the POJO DTO’s. This will bring up the New > Items Context Menu where you can click on the ServiceStack Reference… Menu Item to open the Add ServiceStack Reference Dialog:

Add ServiceStack Reference Kotlin Context Menu

The Add ServiceStack Reference Dialog will be partially populated with the selected Package with the package where the Dialog was launched from and the File Name defaulting to dtos.kt where the generated Kotlin DTO’s will be added to. All that’s missing is the url of the remote ServiceStack instance you wish to generate the DTO’s for, e.g: http://techstacks.io:

Clicking OK will add the dtos.kt file to your project and modifies the current Project’s build.gradle file dependencies list with the new net.servicestack:android dependency containing the JSON ServiceClients which is used together with the remote Servers DTO’s to enable its typed Web Services API. If for some reason you wish to instead add Java DTO’s to your project instead of Kotlin, just rename the dtos.kt file extension to dtos.java and it will import Java classes instead.

As the Module’s build.gradle file was modified you’ll need to click on the Sync Now link in the top yellow banner to sync the build.gradle changes which will install or remove any modified dependencies.

Update ServiceStack Reference

Like other Native Type languages, the generated DTO’s can be further customized by modifying any of the options available in the header comments:

/* Options:
Date: 2015-04-17 15:16:08
Version: 1
BaseUrl: http://techstacks.io

Package: org.layoric.myapplication
GlobalNamespace: techstackdtos
//AddPropertyAccessors: True
//SettersReturnThis: True
//AddServiceStackTypes: True
//AddResponseStatus: False
//AddImplicitVersion: 
//IncludeTypes: 
//ExcludeTypes: 
//DefaultImports: java.math.*,java.util.*,net.servicestack.client.*,com.google.gson.annotations.*
*/
...

For example the package name can be changed by uncommenting the Package: option with the new package name, then either right-click on the file to bring up the file context menu or use Android Studio’s Alt+Enter keyboard shortcut then click on Update ServiceStack Reference to update the DTO’s with any modified options:

Java Server Events Client

In addition to enabling end-to-end Typed APIs, Kotlin can also be used to handle real-time notifications with the Java Server Events Client.

JsonServiceClient API

The goal of Native Types is to provide a productive end-to-end typed API to facilitate consuming remote services with minimal effort, friction and cognitive overhead. One way we achieve this is by promoting a consistent, forwards and backwards-compatible message-based API that’s works conceptually similar on every platform where each language consumes remote services by sending Typed DTO’s using a reusable Generic Service Client and a consistent client library API. Thanks to its seamless integration with Java, Kotlin is able to re-use the same Java Client Library used by Java Add ServiceStack Reference.

To maximize knowledge sharing between different platforms, the Java ServiceClient API is modelled after the .NET Service Clients API closely, as allowed within Java’s language and idiomatic-style constraints.

Thanks to C#/.NET being heavily inspired by Java, the resulting Java JsonServiceClient ends up bearing a close resemblance with .NET’s Service Clients. The primary differences being due to language limitations like Java’s generic type erasure and lack of language features like property initializers making Java slightly more verbose to work with, however as Add ServiceStack Reference is able to take advantage of code-gen we’re able to mitigate most of these limitations to retain a familiar developer UX.

The ServiceClient.java interface provides a good overview on the API available on the concrete JsonServiceClient class:

public interface ServiceClient {
    public <TResponse> TResponse get(IReturn<TResponse> request);
    public <TResponse> TResponse get(IReturn<TResponse> request, Map<String,String> queryParams);
    public <TResponse> TResponse get(String path, Class responseType);
    public <TResponse> TResponse get(String path, Type responseType);
    public HttpURLConnection get(String path);

    public <TResponse> TResponse post(IReturn<TResponse> request);
    public <TResponse> TResponse post(String path, Object request, Class responseCls);
    public <TResponse> TResponse post(String path, Object request, Type responseType);
    public <TResponse> TResponse post(String path, byte[] requestBody, String contentType, Class responseCls);
    public <TResponse> TResponse post(String path, byte[] requestBody, String contentType, Type responseType);
    public HttpURLConnection post(String path, byte[] requestBody, String contentType);

    public <TResponse> TResponse put(IReturn<TResponse> request);
    public <TResponse> TResponse put(String path, Object request, Class responseType);
    public <TResponse> TResponse put(String path, Object request, Type responseType);
    public <TResponse> TResponse put(String path, byte[] requestBody, String contentType, Class responseType);
    public <TResponse> TResponse put(String path, byte[] requestBody, String contentType, Type responseType);
    public HttpURLConnection put(String path, byte[] requestBody, String contentType);

    public <TResponse> TResponse delete(IReturn<TResponse> request);
    public <TResponse> TResponse delete(IReturn<TResponse> request, Map<String,String> queryParams);
    public <TResponse> TResponse delete(String path, Class responseType);
    public <TResponse> TResponse delete(String path, Type responseType);
    public HttpURLConnection delete(String path);
}

The primary concession is due to JVM’s generic type erasure which forces the addition overloads that include a Class parameter for specifying the response type to deserialize into as well as a Type parameter overload which does the same for generic types. These overloads aren’t required for API’s that accept a Request DTO annotated with IReturn<T> interface marker as we’re able to encode the Response Type in code-generated Request DTO classes.

JsonServiceClient Usage

To get started you’ll just need an instance of JsonServiceClient initialized with the BaseUrl of the remote ServiceStack instance you want to access, e.g:

val client = JsonServiceClient("http://techstacks.io")

The JsonServiceClient is made available after the net.servicestack:android package is automatically added to your build.gradle when adding a ServiceStack reference.

Typical usage of the Service Client is the same in .NET where you just need to send a populated Request DTO and the Service Client will return a populated Response DTO, e.g:

val response: AppOverviewResponse? = client.get(AppOverview())
val allTiers: ArrayList<Option> = response.AllTiers
val topTech: ArrayList<TechnologyInfo> = response.TopTechnologies

Explicit type annotations are unnecessary in Kotlin, added above to show the types returned

Another example using a populated Request DTO:

var request = GetTechnology()
request.Slug = "servicestack"

val response = client.get(request)

Custom Example Usage

We’ll now go through some of the other API’s to give you a flavour of what’s available. When preferred you can also consume Services using a custom route by supplying a string containing the route and/or Query String. As no type info is available you’ll need to specify the Response DTO class to deserialize the response into, e.g:

val response = client.get("/overview", OverviewResponse::class.java)

The path can either be a relative or absolute url in which case the BaseUrl is ignored and the full absolute url is used instead, e.g:

val response = client.get("http://techstacks.io/overview", OverviewResponse::class.java)

AutoQuery Example Usage

You can also send requests composed of both a Typed DTO and untyped String Map by providing a Hash Map of additional args. This is typically used when querying implicit conventions in AutoQuery services, e.g:

val response = client.get(FindTechnologies(), hashMapOf(Pair("DescriptionContains","framework")))

There’s also the Utils.java static class which contains a number of helpers to simplify common usage patterns and reduce the amount of boiler plate required for common tasks, e.g they can simplify reading raw bytes or raw String from a HTTP Response.

Here’s how you can download an image bytes using a custom JsonServiceClient HTTP Request and load it into an Android Image Bitmap:

val httpRes:HttpURLConnection = client.get("https://servicestack.net/img/logo.png")
val imgBytes = Utils.readBytesToEnd(httpRes)
val img = BitmapFactory.decodeByteArray(imgBytes, 0, imgBytes.size)

AndroidServiceClient

Unlike .NET, the JVM doesn’t have an established Async story or any language support that simplifies execution and composition of Async tasks, as a result the Async story on Android is fairly fragmented with multiple options built-in for executing non-blocking tasks on different threads including:

  • Thread
  • Executor
  • HandlerThread
  • AsyncTask
  • Service
  • IntentService
  • AsyncQueryHandler
  • Loader

JayWay’s Oredev presentation on Efficient Android Threading provides a good overview of the different threading strategies above with their use-cases, features and pitfalls. Unfortunately none of the above options enable a Promise/Future-like API which would’ve been ideal in maintaining a consistent Task-based Async API across all ServiceStack Clients. Of all the above options the new Android AsyncTask ended up the most suitable option, requiring the least effort for the typical Service Client use-case of executing non-blocking WebService Requests and having their results called back on the Main UI thread.

AsyncResult

To enable a simpler Async API decoupled from Android, we’ve introduced a higher-level AsyncResult abstract class which allows capturing of Async callbacks using an idiomatic anonymous Java class to provide an optimal dev experience for Java 7 on Android.

AsyncResult is modelled after jQuery.ajax and allows specifying success(), error() and complete() callbacks as needed.

To provide an optimal experience for Kotlin and Java 8, we’ve added SAM overloads using the alternative AsyncSuccess<T>, AsyncSuccessVoid and AsyncError interfaces which as they only contain a single method are treated like a lambda in Kotlin/Java 8, so instead of using the more verbose AsyncResult<T> overloads:

client.getAsync(Overview(), object: AsyncResult<OverviewResponse>() {
    override fun success(response: OverviewResponse?) {
        var topUsers = response!!.TopUsers
    }
    override fun error(ex: Exception?) {
        ex?.printStackTrace()
    }
})

You can instead use the equivalent and more succinct AsyncSuccess<T> API:

client.getAsync(Overview(), AsyncSuccess<OverviewResponse> {
        var topUsers = it.TopUsers
    }, AsyncError {
        it.printStackTrace()
    })

AsyncServiceClient API

The complete AsyncServiceClient API implemented by AndroidServiceClient:

public interface AsyncServiceClient {
    <T> void sendAsync(IReturn<T> request, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void sendAsync(IReturn<T> request, final AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    <T> void sendAsync(IReturn<T> request, final AsyncSuccess<T> success, final AsyncError error);
    void sendAsync(IReturnVoid request, final AsyncResultVoid asyncResult);
    void sendAsync(IReturnVoid request, final AsyncSuccessVoid success);
    void sendAsync(IReturnVoid request, final AsyncSuccessVoid success, final AsyncError error);

    <T> void getAsync(IReturn<T> request, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void getAsync(IReturn<T> request, final AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    <T> void getAsync(IReturn<T> request, final AsyncSuccess<T> success, final AsyncError error);
    void getAsync(IReturnVoid request, final AsyncResultVoid asyncResult);
    void getAsync(IReturnVoid request, final AsyncSuccessVoid success);
    void getAsync(IReturnVoid request, final AsyncSuccessVoid success, final AsyncError error);
    <T> void getAsync(IReturn<T> request, final Map<String, String> queryParams, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void getAsync(IReturn<T> request, final Map<String, String> queryParams, AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    <T> void getAsync(String path, final Class responseType, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void getAsync(String path, final Class responseType, final AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    <T> void getAsync(String path, final Type responseType, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void getAsync(String path, final Type responseType, final AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    void getAsync(String path, final AsyncResult<byte[]> asyncResult);
    void getAsync(String path, final AsyncSuccess<byte[]> success);

    <T> void postAsync(IReturn<T> request, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void postAsync(IReturn<T> request, final AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    <T> void postAsync(IReturn<T> request, final AsyncSuccess<T> success, final AsyncError error);
    void postAsync(IReturnVoid request, final AsyncResultVoid asyncResult);
    void postAsync(IReturnVoid request, final AsyncSuccessVoid success);
    void postAsync(IReturnVoid request, final AsyncSuccessVoid success, final AsyncError error);
    <T> void postAsync(String path, final Object request, final Class responseType, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void postAsync(String path, final Object request, final Class responseType, final AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    <T> void postAsync(String path, final Object request, final Type responseType, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void postAsync(String path, final Object request, final Type responseType, final AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    <T> void postAsync(String path, final byte[] requestBody, final String contentType, final Class responseType, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void postAsync(String path, final byte[] requestBody, final String contentType, final Class responseType, final AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    <T> void postAsync(String path, final byte[] requestBody, final String contentType, final Type responseType, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void postAsync(String path, final byte[] requestBody, final String contentType, final Type responseType, final AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    void postAsync(String path, final byte[] requestBody, final String contentType, final AsyncResult<byte[]> asyncResult);
    void postAsync(String path, final byte[] requestBody, final String contentType, final AsyncSuccess<byte[]> success);

    <T> void putAsync(IReturn<T> request, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void putAsync(IReturn<T> request, final AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    <T> void putAsync(IReturn<T> request, final AsyncSuccess<T> success, final AsyncError error);
    void putAsync(IReturnVoid request, final AsyncResultVoid asyncResult);
    void putAsync(IReturnVoid request, final AsyncSuccessVoid success);
    void putAsync(IReturnVoid request, final AsyncSuccessVoid success, final AsyncError error);
    <T> void putAsync(String path, final Object request, final Class responseType, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void putAsync(String path, final Object request, final Class responseType, final AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    <T> void putAsync(String path, final Object request, final Type responseType, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void putAsync(String path, final Object request, final Type responseType, final AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    <T> void putAsync(String path, final byte[] requestBody, final String contentType, final Class responseType, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void putAsync(String path, final byte[] requestBody, final String contentType, final Class responseType, final AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    <T> void putAsync(String path, final byte[] requestBody, final String contentType, final Type responseType, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void putAsync(String path, final byte[] requestBody, final String contentType, final Type responseType, final AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    void putAsync(String path, final byte[] requestBody, final String contentType, final AsyncResult<byte[]> asyncResult);
    void putAsync(String path, final byte[] requestBody, final String contentType, final AsyncSuccess<byte[]> success);

    <T> void deleteAsync(IReturn<T> request, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void deleteAsync(IReturn<T> request, final AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    <T> void deleteAsync(IReturn<T> request, final AsyncSuccess<T> success, final AsyncError error);
    void deleteAsync(IReturnVoid request, final AsyncResultVoid asyncResult);
    void deleteAsync(IReturnVoid request, final AsyncSuccessVoid success);
    void deleteAsync(IReturnVoid request, final AsyncSuccessVoid success, final AsyncError error);
    <T> void deleteAsync(IReturn<T> request, final Map<String, String> queryParams, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void deleteAsync(IReturn<T> request, final Map<String, String> queryParams, final AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    <T> void deleteAsync(String path, final Class responseType, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void deleteAsync(String path, final Class responseType, final AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    <T> void deleteAsync(String path, final Type responseType, final AsyncResult<T> asyncResult);
    <T> void deleteAsync(String path, final Type responseType, final AsyncSuccess<T> success);
    void deleteAsync(String path, final AsyncResult<byte[]> asyncResult);
    void deleteAsync(String path, final AsyncSuccess<byte[]> success);
}

The AsyncServiceClient interface is implemented by the AndroidServiceClient concrete class which behind-the-scenes uses an Android AsyncTask to implement its Async API’s.

Whilst the AndroidServiceClient is contained in the net.servicestack:android dependency and only works in Android, the JsonServiceClient instead is contained in a seperate pure Java net.servicestack:client dependency which can be used independently to provide a typed Java API for consuming ServiceStack Services from any Java or Kotlin JVM application.

Async API Usage

To make use of Async API’s in an Android App (which you’ll want to do to keep web service requests off the Main UI thread), you’ll instead need to use an instance of AndroidServiceClient which as it inherits JsonServiceClient can be used to perform both Sync and Async requests:

val client = AndroidServiceClient("http://techstacks.io")

Like other Service Clients, there’s an equivalent Async API matching their Sync counterparts which differs by ending with an Async suffix which instead of returning a typed response, fires the supplied callback with the typed response, e.g:

client.getAsync(AppOverview(), AsyncSuccess<AppOverviewResponse> {
    val allTiers = it.AllTiers
    val topTech = it.TopTechnologies
})

Which just like the JsonServiceClient Sync examples above also provide a number of flexible options to execute Custom Async Web Service Requests, e.g:

client.getAsync("/overview", OverviewResponse::class.java,
    AsyncSuccess<OverviewResponse?> {  
    })

Calling a Web Service using an absolute url:

client.getAsync("http://techstacks.io/overview", OverviewResponse::class.java,
    AsyncSuccess<OverviewResponse>() {
    })

Async AutoQuery Example

Calling an untyped AutoQuery Service with additional untyped Dictionary String arguments:

client.getAsync(FindTechnologies(), hashMapOf(Pair("DescriptionContains", "framework")),
    AsyncSuccess<QueryResponse<Technology>>() {
    })

Download Raw Image Async Example

Example downloading raw Image bytes and loading it into an Android Image Bitmap:

client.getAsync("https://servicestack.net/img/logo.png", {
    val img = BitmapFactory.decodeByteArray(it, 0, it.size);
})

Send Raw String or byte[] Requests

You can easily get the raw string Response from Request DTO’s that return are annotated with IReturn<string>, e.g:

open class HelloString : IReturn<String> { ... }

var request = HelloString()
request.name = "World"

val response:String? = client.get(request)

You can also specify that you want the raw UTF-8 byte[] or String response instead of a the deserialized Response DTO by specifying the Response class you want returned, e.g:

val response:ByteArray = client.get("/hello?Name=World", ByteArray::class.java);

Kotlin HTTP Marker Interfaces

Like the .NET and Swift Service Clients, the HTTP Interface markers are also annotated on Kotlin DTO’s and let you use the same send API to send Requests via different HTTP Verbs, e.g:

open class HelloGet : IReturn<HelloVerbResponse>, IGet { ... }
open class HelloPut : IReturn<HelloVerbResponse>, IPut { ... }

val response = client.send(HelloGet()) //GET

client.sendAsync(HelloPut(),           //PUT
    AsyncSuccess<HelloVerbResponse> { });

IReturnVoid Support

Sync/Async overloads are also available for IReturnVoid Request DTO’s:

client.delete(DeleteCustomer())

Typed Error Handling

Thanks to Kotlin also using typed Exceptions for error control flow, error handling in Kotlin will be instantly familiar to C# devs which also throws a typed WebServiceException containing the remote servers structured error data:

var request = ThrowType()
request.Type = "NotFound"
request.message = "not here"

try {
    val response = client.post(request)
} catch(webEx: WebServiceException) {
    val status = webEx.responseStatus
    status.message    //= not here
    status.stackTrace //= (Server StackTrace)
}

Likewise structured Validation Field Errors are also accessible from the familiar ResponseStatus DTO, e.g:

var request = ThrowValidation()
request.email = "invalidemail"

try {
    client.post(request);
} catch (webEx: WebServiceException){
    val status = webEx.responseStatus

    val firstError = status.errors[0]
    firstError.errorCode //= InclusiveBetween
    firstError.message   //= 'Age' must be between 1 and 120. You entered 0.
    firstError.fieldName //= Age
}

Async Error Handling

Async Error handling differs where in order to access the WebServiceException you’ll need to implement the error(Exception) callback, e.g:

client.postAsync(request, AsyncSuccess<ThrowTypeResponse> { },
    AsyncError {
        val webEx = it as WebServiceException

        val status = webEx.responseStatus
        status.message    //= not here
        status.stackTrace //= (Server StackTrace)
    })

Async Validation Errors are also handled in the same way:

client.postAsync(request, AsyncSuccess<ThrowValidationResponse> { },
    AsyncError {
        val webEx = it as WebServiceException

        val status = webEx.responseStatus
        val firstError = status.errors[0]
        firstError.errorCode //= InclusiveBetween
        firstError.message   //= 'Age' must be between 1 and 120. You entered 0.
        firstError.fieldName //= Age
    })

JsonServiceClient Error Handlers

To make it easier to generically handle Web Service Exceptions, the Java Service Clients also support static Global Exception handlers by assigning AndroidServiceClient.GlobalExceptionFilter, e.g:

AndroidServiceClient.GlobalExceptionFilter = ExceptionFilter { res:HttpURLConnection?, ex ->
}

As well as local Exception Filters by specifying a handler for client.ExceptionFilter, e.g:

client.ExceptionFilter = ExceptionFilter { res:HttpURLConnection?, ex ->
}

More Usage Examples

You can find more sync and async Kotlin ServiceClient examples in the links below:

Kotlin generated DTO Types

Our goal with Kotlin Add ServiceStack Reference is to ensure a high-fidelity, idiomatic translation within the constraints of Kotlin language and its built-in libraries, where .NET Server DTO’s are translated into clean, conventional Kotlin classes where .NET built-in Value Types mapped to their equivalent JVM data Type.

To see what this ends up looking up we’ll go through some of the Generated Test Services to see how they’re translated in Kotlin.

.NET Attributes translated into Java Annotations

By inspecting the HelloAllTypes Request DTO we can see that C# Metadata Attributes e.g. [Route("/all-types")] are also translated into the typed Kotlin Annotations defined in the net.servicestack:client dependency. But as JVM only supports defining a single Annotation of the same type, any subsequent .NET Attributes of the same type are emitted in comments.

Terse, typed API’s with IReturn interfaces

Kotlin Request DTO’s are also able to take advantage of the IReturn<TResponse> interface marker to provide its terse, typed generic API but due to JVM’s Type erasure the Response Type also needs to be encoded in the Request DTO as seen by the responseType static companion property:

@Route("/all-types")
open class HelloAllTypes : IReturn<HelloAllTypesResponse>
{
    var name:String? = null
    var allTypes:AllTypes? = null
    var allCollectionTypes:AllCollectionTypes? = null
    companion object { private val responseType = HelloAllTypesResponse::class.java }
    override fun getResponseType(): Any? = responseType
}

DTO Property Behavior

To comply with Gson JSON Serialization rules, the public DTO properties are emitted in the same JSON naming convention as the remote ServiceStack server which for the test.servicestack.net Web Services, follows its camelCase naming convention that is configured in its AppHost with:

JsConfig.EmitCamelCaseNames = true;

Kotlin Type Conversions

By inspecting the AllTypes DTO properties we can see what Kotlin Type each built-in .NET Type gets translated into. In each case it selects the most suitable concrete datatype available, inc. generic collections. We also see nullable reference types are used since DTO properties are optional and need to be nullable, whlist collection types are default initialized to an empty collection to make it simplify its usage in Kotlin:

open class AllTypes
{
    var id:Int? = null
    var nullableId:Int? = null
    @SerializedName("byte") var Byte:Short? = null
    @SerializedName("short") var Short:Short? = null
    @SerializedName("int") var Int:Int? = null
    @SerializedName("long") var Long:Long? = null
    var uShort:Int? = null
    var uInt:Long? = null
    var uLong:BigInteger? = null
    @SerializedName("float") var Float:Float? = null
    @SerializedName("double") var Double:Double? = null
    var decimal:BigDecimal? = null
    var string:String? = null
    var dateTime:Date? = null
    var timeSpan:TimeSpan? = null
    var dateTimeOffset:Date? = null
    var guid:UUID? = null
    @SerializedName("char") var Char:String? = null
    var nullableDateTime:Date? = null
    var nullableTimeSpan:TimeSpan? = null
    var stringList:ArrayList<String> = ArrayList<String>()
    var stringArray:ArrayList<String>? = null
    var stringMap:HashMap<String,String> = HashMap<String,String>()
    var intStringMap:HashMap<Int,String> = HashMap<Int,String>()
    var subType:SubType? = null
}

The only built-in Value Type that didn’t have a suitable built-in Java equivalent was TimeSpan. In this case it uses our new TimeSpan.java class which implements the same familiar API available in .NET’s TimeSpan.

Something else you’ll notice is that some fields are annotated with the @SerializedName() Gson annotation. This is automatically added for Kotlin keywords. The first time a Gson annotation is referenced it also automatically includes the required Gson namespace imports. If needed, this can also be explicitly added by with:

KotlinGenerator.AddGsonImport = true;

Kotlin Enums

.NET enums are also translated into typed Kotlin enums where basic enums end up as a straightforward translation, e.g:

enum class BasicEnum
{
    Foo,
    Bar,
    Baz,
}

Whilst as Kotlin doesn’t support integer Enum flags directly the resulting translation ends up being a bit more convoluted:

@Flags()
enum class EnumFlags(val value:Int)
{
    @SerializedName("1") Value1(1),
    @SerializedName("2") Value2(2),
    @SerializedName("4") Value3(4),
}

Kotlin Configuration

The header comments in the generated DTO’s allows for further customization of how the DTO’s are generated which can then be updated with any custom Options provided using the Update ServiceStack Reference Menu Item in Android Studio. Options that are preceded by a single line Java comment // are defaults from the server which can be overridden.

To override a value, remove the // and specify the value to the right of the :. Any value uncommented will be sent to the server to override any server defaults.

/* Options:
Date: 2015-12-17 05:17:47
Version: 4.051
Tip: To override a DTO option, remove "//" prefix before updating
BaseUrl: http://techstacks.io

Package: servicestack.net.techstacks
//AddServiceStackTypes: True
//AddResponseStatus: False
//AddImplicitVersion: 
//IncludeTypes: 
//ExcludeTypes: 
//InitializeCollections: True
//TreatTypesAsStrings: 
//DefaultImports: java.math.*,java.util.*,net.servicestack.client.*,com.google.gson.annotations.*,com.google.gson.reflect.*
*/

We’ll go through and cover each of the above options to see how they affect the generated DTO’s:

Package

Specify the package name that the generated DTO’s are in:

Package: net.servicestack.techstacks

Will generate the package name for the generated DTO’s as:

package servicestack.net.techstacks

AddServiceStackTypes

Lets you exclude built-in ServiceStack Types and DTO’s from being generated with:

AddServiceStackTypes: False

This will prevent Request DTO’s for built-in ServiceStack Services like Authenticate from being emitted.

AddImplicitVersion

Lets you specify the Version number to be automatically populated in all Request DTO’s sent from the client:

AddImplicitVersion: 1

Which will embed the specified Version number in each Request DTO, e.g:

open class GetTechnology : IReturn<GetTechnologyResponse>
{
    val Version:Int = 1
}

This lets you know what Version of the Service Contract that existing clients are using making it easy to implement ServiceStack’s recommended versioning strategy.

IncludeTypes

Is used as a Whitelist that can be used to specify only the types you would like to have code-generated:

/* Options:
IncludeTypes: GetTechnology,GetTechnologyResponse

Will only generate GetTechnology and GetTechnologyResponse DTO’s, e.g:

open class GetTechnology : IReturn<GetTechnologyResponse> { ... }
open class GetTechnologyResponse { ... }

ExcludeTypes

Is used as a Blacklist where you can specify which types you would like to exclude from being generated:

/* Options:
ExcludeTypes: GetTechnology,GetTechnologyResponse

Will exclude GetTechnology and GetTechnologyResponse DTO’s from being generated.

DefaultImports

Lets you override the default import packages included in the generated DTO’s:

DefaultImports: java.math.*,java.util.*,net.servicestack.client.*,com.acme.custom.*

Will override the default imports with the ones specified, i.e:

import java.math.*
import java.util.*
import net.servicestack.client.*
import com.acme.custom.*

By default the generated DTO’s do not require any Google’s Gson-specific serialization hints, but when they’re needed e.g. if your DTO’s use Kotlin keywords or are attributed with [DataMember(Name=...)] the required Gson imports are automatically added which can also be added explicitly with:

JavaGenerator.AddGsonImport = true;

Which will add the following Gson imports:

import com.google.gson.annotations.*
import com.google.gson.reflect.*

TreatTypesAsStrings

Due to the unusual encoding of Guid bytes it may be instead be preferential to treat Guids as opaque strings so they are easier to compare back to their original C# Guids. This can be enabled with the new TreatTypesAsStrings option:

/* Options:
...
TreatTypesAsStrings: Guid

*/

Example TechStacks Android App

To demonstrate Kotlin Native Types in action we’ve ported the Java TechStacks Android App to a native Android App written in Kotlin to showcase the responsiveness and easy-of-use of leveraging Kotlin Add ServiceStack Reference in Android Projects.

Checkout the TechStacks Kotlin Android App repository for a nice overview of how it leverages Kotlin Native Types and iOS-inspired Data Binding to easily develop services-heavy Mobile Apps.